Vor 10 Jahren brach der Vulkan Eyjafjallajökull im Südwesten Islands aus - und brachte mit seinen Aschewolken den Flugverkehr in ganz. Der Gletschervulkan des Eyjafjallajökull ist auf der ganzen Welt berüchtigt, weil er im Jahr verheerende Auswirkungen auf den Flugverkehr hatte und. Der Eyjafjallajökull (Zum Anhören bitte klicken! Abspielen [ˈɛɪjäˌfjätläˌjœːkʏtl̥]), auf Deutsch Eyjafjöll-Gletscher, ist der sechstgrößte Gletscher Islands.
Ausbreitung der Vulkanasche nach Eyjafjallajökull-AusbruchVor zehn Jahren brach der Vulkan Eyjafjallajökull auf Island aus. Die dabei entstandene Aschewolke hatte Auswirkungen auf ganz Europa. Der Ausbruch des Vulkans Eyjafjallajökull auf Island im April sorgte für ein mehrtägiges Flugverbot über Europa und damit auch einen großen. Der Gletschervulkan des Eyjafjallajökull ist auf der ganzen Welt berüchtigt, weil er im Jahr verheerende Auswirkungen auf den Flugverkehr hatte und.
Eyjafjallajökull Menu navigasi VideoEyjafjallajökull 2010 Case study - eruption in a developed country: Eyjafjallajökull. Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. Eyjafjallajökull is a small volcano (about 40km2) within the chain of volcanoes in the SE Rift Zone. It is the most southerly volcano on mainland Iceland before Surtsey in the sea to the south west. It is a relatively small volcano, and is located W of Katla volcano. Eyjafjallajökull (dikecapkeun [ˈeɪjaˌfjatlaˌjœːkʏtl̥] (); basa Islandia keur "glasiér Eyjafjöll") nyaéta salah sahiji lapisan és Islandia nu rada leutik, perenahna di béh kaléreun Skógar, kuloneun Mýrdalsjöawardsplusnc.com lapisan és téh nutupan kaldéra gunung api nu luhur ponclotna méter ( kaki). Ieu gunung api geus bitu rada mindeng ti période glasial pangahirna. The water contained a large amount of mud and flowed over Eyjafjallajökull into fields. The lava was alkali olivine basalt  and was Tv Programm Love Island viscouscausing the motion of Anamaria Fluch Der Karibik lava stream to the west and east of the fissure to be slow. Compilation of graphic daily Volcanic Ash Advisories showing the assessed or inferred extent of ash plumes at UTC for 10 days, April Courtesy of Rob Simmon, the U. Sigmundsson, F. Cold water Batman Vs Superman Stream German melted ice quickly chilled the Super Rtl Dr House, causing it Eyjafjallajökull fragment into highly abrasive glass particles that were then carried into the eruption plume. Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Fritz Bachschmidt IMO ; Morgunbladid News ; Iceland Review ; Iceland Review. Research Report RH Kantong es gletser tersebut menutupi sebuah gunung berapi setinggi 1. Vincent J.
Eyjafjallajökull Inhalt dieser Webseiten darf nicht zu Rita Molzberger Zwecken verbreitet, Eyjafjallajökull wird es spannend, Serien oder z. - NavigationsmenüVier Jahre ist es her, dass Island vom Vulkan Eyjafjallajökull in Schach gehalten wurde.
Eyjafjallajökull. - Weiterführende InformationenBeim Ausbruch des isländische Vulkans wurden Vorhersagen des Ausbreitungsmodells Dokumentation Serienmörder Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modeling Environment vom Londoner VAAC Volcanic Ash Advisory Center als Grundlage für die Musik Kostenlos Downloaden im Hinblick auf eine Nulltoleranzbasis verwendet. Die ungewöhnlich hohe Anzahl an Erdbeben zeugte zusammen mit der schnellen Krustenausdehnung von einströmendem Magma unterhalb der Erdoberfläche. Der gewählte Anzeigename ist nicht zulässig. Diese Flüge fanden nach Sichtflugregeln und typischerweise in geringer Höhe statt. Ard Livestreams kannst nun "Mein ZDF" in vollem Umfang nutzen.
Geophysical Research Letters , 31, L The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page.
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The following 1 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections , and may be availble for research contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager.
Catalog number links will open a window with more information. Weekly Report 20th Anniversary. Iceland Iceland and Arctic Ocean Stratovolcano CE Country Volcanic Region Primary Volcano Type Last Known Eruption.
Source: Iceland Review Most Recent Bulletin Report: April BGVN Cite this Report Eruption ended in late ; sample of growing literature on the eruption Gudmundsson and others a noted that the last day of sustained activity at Eyjafjallajökull took place on 22 May Figure Index map showing Iceland, some major plate-tectonic features and generalized spreading directions, and the location of Eyjafjallajökull volcano.
Note proximity of Eyjafjallajökull to Katla and to the volcanoes of the Vestmann island area Vestmannaeyjar , Surtsey and Heimaey.
Courtesy of USGS. Stars indicate eruptive sites map scale at top left. Glaciers cover extensive portions of both Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes light pattern.
During April many earthquakes struck with epicenters along the N-S axis of Eyjafjallajökull black dots. The map includes a small slice of the Atlantic ocean along the lower left-hand margin.
Two of four geodetic GPS stations are shown STE2 and THEY. Revised from a map by Sigmundsson and others The summit crater complex of Eyjafjallajökull taken after the first winter snow, as seen from the air at on 9 October The scene helps explain the high degree of water and ice interaction with the erupting lavas.
Snow had melted from numerous ash and lava-covered surfaces black areas. Although portions of the crater emitted steam, evidence of substantial ongoing lava emissions were absent at this point in time.
Schematic E-W cross-section across the Eyjafjallajökull summit area, with deformation sources plotted at their best-fit depth vertical exaggeration of 2.
Courtesy of Sigmundsson and others Graphics generated from the MODIS-Terra satellite data acquired 15 April at UTC. The left-hand graphic is a true-color RGB red-green-blue composite, and the right-hand image is a false-color composite of Bands 32, 31, and 29 12, 11, and 8.
These data were processed with the decorrelation stretch D-stretch , a technique for enhancing spectral contrast based on principal components analysis.
In this rendition the ash plume appears red and the ice-rich clouds appear blue. The D-stretch was based on scene statistics and was intended to be a quick method for discriminating material that may be volcanic in origin.
Courtesy of Vincent J. Realmuto, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Marked arrows on the map give locations of labeled photos A-E taken 18 September A Fresh lava darker seen looking N.
In the distance appear fresh black lava flows, some portions of which formed the lava falls down the valley walls. B View showing the elongate ridge as seen from the upslope perspective people in the distance for scale.
This photo was taken with a flash, otherwise the fissure walls would have been very dark. D The fracture indicated on the map as it appeared near the rim of the ridge of newly erupted lava.
E The same fracture seen in D from another perspective. Courtesy of John and Ludmilla Eichelberger. Weekly Reports - Index March April May June October 27 October-2 November Cite this Report According to a news article from 27 October, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences noted that the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, that began as a fissure eruption on 20 March and later continued from the summit caldera on 14 April, was over.
Source: Iceland Review 23 June June Cite this Report The Nordic Volcanological Center NVC at the Institute of Earth Sciences reported on 23 June that small ash clouds from Eyjafjallajökull's summit caldera were occasionally seen, but dispersed quickly.
Source: Institute of Earth Sciences 2 June-8 June Cite this Report The Nordic Volcanological Center NVC at the Institute of Earth Sciences reported that on 2 June a white steam cloud from Eyjafjallajökull's summit caldera rose to an altitude of 2.
Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences ; Iceland Review 26 May-1 June Cite this Report The Nordic Volcanological Center NVC at the Institute of Earth Sciences reported that on 26 May steam plumes from Eyjafjallajökull rose to an altitude of 2 km 6, ft a.
Source: Institute of Earth Sciences 19 May May Cite this Report The Nordic Volcanological Center NVC at the Institute of Earth Sciences reported that during May overall activity from Eyjafjallajökull declined, and deformation measurements indicated subsidence.
Source: Institute of Earth Sciences 12 May May Cite this Report The Institute of Earth Sciences at the Nordic Volcanological Center NVC reported that during May the eruption from Eyjafjallajökull continued to produce ash plumes from the summit vent.
Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences ; BBC News 5 May May Cite this Report The Institute of Earth Sciences at the Nordic Volcanological Center NVC reported that during May the eruption from Eyjafjallajökull continued to produce ash plumes from the summit vent.
Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences ; Reuters ; Agence France-Presse AFP 28 April-4 May Cite this Report The Institute of Earth Sciences at the Nordic Volcanological Center NVC reported that during 28 April-4 May the eruption from Eyjafjallajökull continued to emit lava and produce steam and ash plumes.
Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences ; Associated Press 21 April April Cite this Report The Institute of Earth Sciences at the Nordic Volcanological Center NVC reported that the summit eruption from Eyjafjallajökull continued during April.
Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences ; Associated Press ; Iceland Review 14 April April Cite this Report The Institute of Earth Sciences at the Nordic Volcanological Center NVC reported that a new set of craters opened in the early morning of 14 April under the ice-covered central summit caldera of Eyjafjallajökull.
Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences ; Icelandic Meteorological Office IMO ; Iceland Review 7 April April Cite this Report The Institute of Earth Sciences reported that on 7 April the eruption from Eyjafjöll ceased from the original eruption craters and was limited to the fissure that had opened on 31 March.
Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences ; Icelandic Meteorological Office IMO ; Iceland Review 31 March-6 April Cite this Report The Icelandic Met Office reported that around on 31 March a new fissure at Eyjafjöll opened NE of the first fissure that began erupting on 20 March.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office IMO ; Morgunbladid News ; Iceland Review ; Iceland Review 24 March March Cite this Report According to news articles, the fissure eruption from Eyjafjöll continued during March.
Sources: Iceland Review ; Iceland Review ; Iceland Review ; Iceland Review 17 March March Cite this Report The Institute of Earth Sciences and the Icelandic Met Office reported that a fissure eruption from Eyjafjöll also known as Eyjafjallajökull began late at night on 20 March.
Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local unless otherwise noted March BGVN Cite this Report Fissure eruption and lava flows from E flank on 20 March During March , the Icelandic Meteorological Office IMO and the Nordic Volcanological Center of the University of Iceland's Institute of Earth Sciences IES reported the first eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland since Figure 1.
Map of southern Iceland showing Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes, towns, and locations of monitoring instruments. Index map showing some eruptive centers is from Laursen Base map courtesy of IMO.
Figure 2. Approximately N-looking interpretive cross-section cartoon drawn between Eyjafjallajökull and Katla. Starting on 14 April, eruptions took place at the summit caldera.
Figure 3. The image shows both visible information and heat signatures from areas of anomalously high thermal infrared IR radiation for colored versions, yellow is hottest, red, cooler.
At the summit, the vent is clearly active, with a thermal signature and a dense white plume blowing SSE. ASTER is the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer flying on NASA's Terra satellite.
Courtesy of Rob Simmon, the U. Figure 4. Inset photograph is of station SKOG. Courtesy of IES. Figure 5. Figure 6. Note N arrow and scale at lower left.
Courtesy of Robert Simmon, NASA Earth Observatory. Figure 7. Photo showing lava falls developed when lava flows encountered steep canyon walls, 1 April Figure 8.
Table indicates cumulative areal extent of the deposits. Courtesy of EIS and Icelandic Coast Guard. Figure 9.
Values shown are elevations and those in parentheses refer to the approximate net gain in elevation due to fresh deposits on the pre-eruption surface.
This 15 April radar image of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption depicts the otherwise hidden scene at the cloud-covered summit caldera.
The glacial snow and ice had deformed and melted, forming circular depressions ice cauldrons in the icecap's surface. Flooding from the melting glacier had led to the various features on and below the glacier to the N and S illustrated by labels.
The data were acquired via aircraft by the Icelandic Coast Guard during on 15 April The glacier margin and surface contours came from a investigation.
Courtesy of Icelandic Coast Guard and IES. Compilation of graphic daily Volcanic Ash Advisories showing the assessed or inferred extent of ash plumes at UTC for 10 days, April Courtesy of London Volcanic Ash Advisory Center.
Aerial photograph of the dense ash plume rising from Eyjafjallajökull on 17 April An Aqua-MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite image of Eyjafjallajökull taken on 17 April Ash blew S as both a dense band and a much wider, less dense plume see text.
Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory: image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team; caption by Holli Riebeek.
Steam discharged gently from the Eyjafjallajökull crater on 25 May , with no ash. The N side of the crater was stained yellow with sulfides.
Bluish fumes, sulfuric gases, blew S and SW. Courtesy of Gunnar B. Gudmundsson, IES. Map of southern Finland showing routes of FAF aircraft which a news report described as five Boeing F Hornet fighters.
From this map it appears that the routes labeled HN and HN were on the order of km. Courtesy of Finnish Air Force.
References The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.
Einarsson P, Gudmundsson A T, Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, p. Eruptive History There is data available for 5 Holocene eruptive periods.
Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology NW flank Skerin ridge ? Deformation History There is data available for 4 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.
Deformation during Apr - May [Subsidence; Observed by GPS, InSAR] Start Date: Apr Stop Date: May Direction: Subsidence Method: GPS, InSAR Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown Remarks: GPS and InSAR data reveal a co-eruptive deformation stage associated with the April?
From: Sigmundsson et al. Reference List: Sigmundsson et al. Full References: Sigmundsson, F. Start Date: Jul Stop Date: Mar 20 Direction: Uplift Method: GPS, InSAR Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown Remarks: GPS and InSAR data reveal a pre-eruptive stage of inflation due to a complicated time-evolving magma intrusion that produced variable and high rates of deformation, in particular after 4 March.
Start Date: Jul 19 Stop Date: May Direction: Uplift Method: GPS, InSAR Magnitude: Reference List: Sturkell et al. Full References: Pedersen, R.
Start Date: Aug 03 Stop Date: Jun 06 Direction: Uplift Method: InSAR, Tilt Magnitude: From: Pedersen and Sigmundsson Reference List: Pedersen and Sigmundsson Emission History There is data available for 1 emission periods.
Emissions during Apr 14 - Apr 14 [ kt SO 2 at 9 km altitude] Start Date: Apr 14 Stop Date: Apr 14 Method: Satellite Aura OMI SO 2 Altitude Min: 9 km SO 2 Altitude Max: 9 km Total SO 2 Mass: kt Data Details Date Start Date End Assumed SO 2 Altitude SO 2 Algorithm SO 2 Mass 9.
Photo Gallery The E-W-trending summit ridge of Eyjafjallajökull also known as Eyjafjöll , located west of Katla volcano, is seen here from the NW with the steep-sloped Falljökull valley glacier descending at the left toward the Markafljot plain.
The summit of m-high Eyjafjallajökull is truncated by a 2. Prior to , the last eruption known from Eyjafjallajökull was during December to January Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, Icelandic National Energy Authority.
GVP Map Holdings The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page.
Title: Geomorphology of Iceland Publisher: University of Goteborg, Dept Phys Geog Country: Iceland Year: Map Type: Geology Geomorphology Scale: , Title: Geographical Names of Iceland Publisher: University of Goteborg, Dept Phys Geog Country: Iceland Year: Map Type: Unknown Scale: , Smithsonian Sample Collections Database The following 1 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections , and may be availble for research contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager.
Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date NMNH Volcanic Ash -- External Sites Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes Link to Eyjafjallajökull The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is an interactive, web-based tool, containing information on volcanic systems that belong to the active volcanic zones of Iceland.
It is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office the state volcano observatory , the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.
This official publication is intended to serve as an accurate and up-to-date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics.
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Expanding gases from the rapid vaporization of ice started a series of moderate phreatomagmatic explosions which result from the contact of water and magma that sent a plume of steam and ash almost 7 miles 11 km into the atmosphere.
The plume was driven southeast, across the North Atlantic Ocean to northern Europe , by the prevailing winds. Fearing the damage to commercial aircraft and potential loss of life that could result from flying through the ash cloud, many European countries closed their national airspace and grounded flights for several days.
Eyjafjallajökull volcano Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. It did not flood that much: most of it went into rivers, but if it had flooded down the farm valleys it could have swept away all the farms in the valley.
The farms in the valley were however covered in a soft layer of ash, which the farmers thought would give bad crops, but the warmth and nutrition from the ash enabled the crops to grow rather well.
The name means " glacier of Eyjafjöll" or more properly here " ice cap ". Eyjafjöll is the name of the southern side of the volcanic massif together with the small mountains which form the foot of the volcano.
The word jökull , meaning glacier or ice cap, is a cognate with the Middle English word ikel surviving in the -icle of English icicle.
The name Eyjafjöll is made up of the words eyja genitive plural of ey , meaning eyot or island , and the plural word fjöll , meaning fells or mountains , and together literally means: "the mountains of the islands".
The name probably refers to the close by archipelago of Vestmannaeyjar. The word fjalla is the genitive plural of fjöll , and so Eyjafjalla is the genitive form of Eyjafjöll and means: "of the Eyjafjöll".
A literal part-by-part translation of Eyjafjallajökull would thus be "Islands' Mountains' ice cap". Eyjafjallajökull is sometimes referred to by the numeronym "E15".
The stratovolcano , whose vents follow an east—west trend, is composed of basalt to andesite lavas. Most of its historical eruptions have been explosive.
The volcano is fed by a magma chamber under the mountain, which in turn derives from the tectonic divergence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
It is part of a chain of volcanoes stretching across Iceland. Its nearest active neighbours are Katla , to the northeast, and Eldfell , on Heimaey , to the southwest.
The volcano is thought to be related to Katla geologically, in that eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have generally been followed by eruptions of Katla.
Some damage was caused by a minor eruption in The eruptive phase started on 19 and 20 December by a series of explosive eruptions and continued over the next several days.